Specification of Filter Ability Index Unit
Description of Filter Ability Index Unit
Specification of Ion Exchange Unit
Description of Ion Exchange Unit
Technical Details of Ion Exchange Unit
Specification of Permeability Fluidisation Studies Apparatus
Description of Permeability Fluidisation Studies Apparatus
A bed of granular medium (usually sand, but other materials can be used such as Ballotini or anthracite) is placed in a readily demountable tube through which water can be made to flow in either a downwards or upwards direction.
Flow from a laboratory tap passes through a constant head tank, which also allows air bubbles to be released, and is controlled by hand with a needle valve. The rate of flow is indicated by a variable area meter.
Pressure drop across the bed can be measured either by a 0.5m length water differential manometer or a 0.5m length Mercury manometer (see recommended accessories), depending on the magnitude. Valves are fitted for isolation of various parts of the circuit, together with air release valves.
The test section tube and all tubing connections are transparent so that operation can be observed and the presence of air bubbles easily detected. All metal fittings are corrosion resistant.
No power connections are required and the whole apparatus can be lifted and transported by one person. Test material (Ballotini) for the packed bed is supplied but Mercury for the manometer is not included.
Technical Details of Permeability Fluidisation Studies Apparatus
Specification of Sedimentation Studies Apparatus
Description of Sedimentation Studies Apparatus
Sedimentation is a process used widely in the clarification of water and waste water. Particles settle from suspension in different ways, depending on the concentration of the suspension and the characteristics of the particles.
The simplest type of sedimentation is the settling of a dilute suspension of particles which have little or no tendency to flocculate. In these circumstances, the prediction of clarification rates and their scale-up to plant design is relatively straightforward. For higher concentrations where inter-particle effects become significant and where agglomeration may take place, different regimes of settling rate occur, known as 'zone' settling A. Information from batch tests for such systems forms a vital part of the search for the optimum design and operation of industrial sedimentation tanks. The Sedimentation Studies Apparatus allows demonstration of these different characteristics for any chosen sediment/water system.
Five equal sized glass cylinders are mounted vertically on a backboard incorporating measuring scales. Each of the cylinders may be removed from the board for washing, filling and mixing of the solid particles. Solutions containing different amounts of suspension can be placed in the cylinders and the differences in sedimentation rate observed by measuring the changes in height of the various solid/liquid interfaces with respect to time.
The equipment includes the following accessories necessary for a self-contained facility: stop clock, three plastic beakers of 2 litre capacity, specific gravity bottle.
The whole apparatus is bench-mounted and provided with back lighting. An accurate balance (not supplied) is required for weighing the solids.